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Standard Industry Washers:::


  

 

 
Washers are one of the most common forms of hardware and perform many varied functions in fastener assemblies. 

They may only be required to span an oversize clearance hole, to give a better bearing for nuts or screw faces, or to distribute loads over a greater area.

Often, they serve as locking devices for threaded fasteners. They are also used to maintain a spring-resistance pressure, to guard surfaces against marring, and to provide a seal.

Methods of washers assembly are not governed by any specific rules. However, when the washer is used as a lock or bearing face for the fastener, the usual custom it to locate it under the member that is torqued.

A)   A Standard conical type that gives less 
       deflection but stronger spring action. 
(B) Wave form 
(C) Special Purpose design that provides for 
       greater spring 
       movement with uniform pressure distribution. 
(D) Fastener and washer with integrally formed
      wedges to provide firm engagement between 
      them.

 

Tooth Lock Washers



 

Internal

Used where projection of teeth beyond screw head or nut is objectionable. Presents a finished appearance. Similar to plain washer. Standard sizes from No.2 to 1 in. Up to 2 in. available. Heavy washer made in in.
  Countersunk

Used under countersunk screw heads. Standard sizes from No.2 to   in. for 82 and 100 deg head styles

 

External 

Most commonly used where security of assembly is critical. Teeth bite into stand and screw heads and nuts to lock. Standard sizes from No.3 to 1 in. Up to 2 in. available. 
  External-Internal

Cover oversize holes. Often used against soft materials and thin sheet steel because of large bearing surface. Can be used between two members which require adjustment before tightening, Resist rotation and sliding movements in final assembly. Can also be used for electrical bonding since teeth penetrate metal coatings to provide ground. Standard sizes from No.4 in.
 
Dished Type

Used to put pressure away from hole on work piece. Covers large bearing surface. Recommended for same general applications as dome type but where resilience rather than rigidity is required. Standard sizes from No.4 to in. 
  Dome Type

Used to put pressure away from hole on work piece. Recommended for use on soft or thin materials. Also suitable for use over large or elongated clearance holes. 

Plain-periphery type will not mark work piece. Tooth-periphery type bites into work piece and prohibits shifting. Standard sizes from No.10 in.
     
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